November 30, 2009
I’ve been playing a lot with Comet lately. It started with Notify.io, in which I decided to prove that HTTP streaming was a simpler alternative to XMPP in getting messages to the desktop. That went quite well, but it was easy because it wasn’t all that different from a socket connection. Then I built a yet-to-be-announced site that uses real-time updates, and I was forced to deal with Comet to the browser. That’s a bit more complicated.
Actually, I’m arguably a veteran of Comet in the browser. I was doing it before it had a name, all the way back in 2005. A friend and I were using it (without knowing that it was terribly novel) to build a real-time strategy game in the browser called AjaxWar. I haven’t really done a lot with it since, but I was hoping after almost 5 years there would be all kinds of advances in libraries and tricks that would make it super easy.
That was not really the case.
I was also hoping for actual persistent connections (that’s what we did in AjaxWar), but it turns out the standard today is long-polling. This is a semi-persistent connection that drops after every message and then reconnects and waits for the next message. I also wanted JSONP and cross-domain support. So I ended up using the dynamic script tag technique:
It’s fairly elegant in its simplicity and cross-browser support. But it has some weird side-effects that I’m not sure if any of the fancier systems got around. For one, it keeps the browser loading. While it’s waiting for messages, the browser says that page is still loading. I also ran into some issues where if I included, say, a Google Calendar widget on the page, it might not decide to keep the connection open (or even start it). I ended up putting a delay on the first call to waitForMsg() until after the calendar widget was likely loaded.
So it’s a bit brittle. You don’t know if it stops working. Therefore you can’t do retries. And you never know if you happen to miss a message between connections (unlikely, but something to worry about). Plus I think if you hit Escape it also kills it.
But this worked well enough for my projects. I knew that if I found a better way, I’d switch over to it, but it was good enough.
Then today I decided to solve the problem right once and for all with a project called CometCatchr.
I know a very small number of people won’t agree with my approach using Flash, but I tend to be pragmatic. I trust Flash is generally available and the benefits completely outweigh everything else to me. It’s also not new. Even the Bayeux protocol includes Flash as supported connection type. Still, I couldn’t find any simple Flash component that gave me what I wanted.
It was a drop-in replacement to my previous technique that worked right out of the box:
It simplified my code, not just client-side, but now I don’t have to support JSONP callbacks on the server. CometCatchr also parses the JSON messages before passing the callback, so that’s taken care of too. I realize it seems less than ideal to couple this with JSON payloads, but I didn’t say it wasn’t an opinionated component.
In fact, it’s very opinionated. It likes single-line JSON messages sent via HTTP using chunked transfer encoding. That’s because that’s how I do Comet streams. Actually, that’s how Twitter does them, too. I’m quite alright with such constraints, but if you want to make changes, it’s MIT licensed and super simple to hack on.
So for the time being, I’ve more or less solved simple Comet to the browser, particularly for me. It also might be worth knowing that another motivation for building this component is that I intend to solve Comet and real-time stuff in the browser entirely… but uhh, yeah. Stay tuned.